Cropping during post-processing also works to make your photo look like a close-up shot, but keep in mind that you run the risk of significantly lowering the resolution of your image. Also, if you decide to exclude limbs (such as an outstretched arm) from the frame, do not crop at the joints.
Rule of Thirds
If you’ve attended at least one photography class, it’s highly likely that you’ve learned about the Rule of Thirds. This basic composition technique is based on the idea that placing your subjects off-center yields a stronger, more natural-looking composition and allows you to make creative use of negative space. Following the Rule of Thirds also serves as the perfect opportunity (or excuse) to shoot your subjects from different angles, ultimately allowing you to capture more unique images.