Whether you’re shooting landscapes or portraits, imagine a 3×3 grid that divides your frame into nine equal sections (by two vertical and two horizontal lines), then place the horizon, trees, and other focal points like the eyes and lips along the intersections and lines. Most cameras come with a grid to aid you in composing your images this way.
Also called sub-framing, this type of compositional technique involves using or adding frame elements to emphasize and lead the viewer’s eye towards your subject or to simply add interest to your image. It can be anything from natural frames like rock formations or man-made ones like windows and tunnels. Whatever shape or form, as long as it helps bring focus to your intended subject, it’s bound to create a more aesthetically-pleasing image.